Epidemiologic Analysis and Preventing the Spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) perspective

Since the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) was identified The epidemic has grown with each passing year. Based on the Global Health Council (2006) in 2005, the total number of people suffering from the virus has been able to reach more than 40 million, more than double the figure in 1995. In the year 2005 40.3 million were suffering from HIV/AIDS across the globe which included 17.5 millions women, as well as 2.3 million children below 15 years of age. If prevention strategies are not implemented 35% of the kids born into an HIV positive mother will be affected by HIV.

About one quarter of babies infected with HIV pass away before they reach the age of one. Up 60 percent of them will pass away before they reach their two-year birthdays. Around the world, less than one in 10 people infected by HIV was tested, and has a clear understanding of their HIV situation (Global Health Council 2006). The HIV/AIDS epidemic across the United States has progressed, strategies that involve treating, prevention, and monitoring of this disease have become vital in limiting its spread disease. Epidemiology is a key factor in the decision-making process by monitoring the data that can reveal the infection levels of HIV in different populations.

The use of epidemiologic data is essential in the monitoring of the declining overall HIV prevalence, the significant increase in survival rates after AIDS diagnosis, and the ongoing differences in racial and ethnic minority populations. This paper will examine the significance and use of epidemiologic information in HIV evolution, definition , and the refinement of health management program.

Treatment of disease related to HIV

Based on Wright (2005) the amount of Americans living with HIV who are more than 45 was up 60% between 1999 and 2002. The aging epidemic is a sign that we have achieved success: “We have learned how to ensure that people are alive and well who have HIV. As people get older with HIV and treatment for the virus will start to mix with treatments for a variety of other health issues that affect aging people.

There are approximately 20 antiretroviral medicines accessible in the U.S. to stop the decline of natural defenses during HIV infection. The most troubling aspect for those suffering from HIV/AIDS is the fact that protease inhibitors can be linked to liver disease, diabetes, and kidney problems (Wright 2005). Data from epidemiologic studies in a hospital setting could help in identifying the presence of these diseases in the people who are the consequence of treatment for HIV/AIDS. The utilization of data from epidemiology will result in better care planning process for those who are affected by the long-term use of antiretroviral medications.

HIV/AIDS surveillance

Based on Fos and Fine (2005) many healthcare facilities have implemented surveillance programs with the responsibility of monitoring the most important indicators, including infections rates. The goal of these programs is to identify infections that are common and preventableand cause high treatment costs or have serious consequences on mortality or morbidity (Fos and Fine 2005, p.167). Organizations seeking to reduce HIV disease must use HIV monitoring to offer current and accurate data that are relevant to the constantly changing socio-demographic, cultural and economic sphere of the HIV/AIDS disease.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006) have reported that the HIV epidemic continues to increase across the United States; at the close of 2003, around 1 039,000-1 1,185,000 individuals living in the United States were living with HIV/AIDS. This included an estimated 24% – 27 percent of them were unaware of the condition. Within the United States there are an estimated 252,000-312,00 people who are unaware that they have HIV and, consequently do not know the risk of HIV transmission. Analyzing the data obtained from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System that surveys people who are at risk of contracting HIV to determine the prevalence and trends in risk-related behavior, HIV testing, and the use of preventive services found that of the at-risk populations surveyed across five U.S. cities, 25 percent were infected HIV and, of that who were infected, 48% were unaware of their HIV status (Center for Disease Control and Prevention 2006). These findings highlight the need to boost HIV testing and prevention for those at risk.

In a hospital setting or a healthcare facility that is based in the community, primary prevention is crucial in efforts to prevent spreading HIV/AIDS. It is reported by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2006) mentions that the first studies on HIV counselling and screening revealed substantial reductions in risk in people who discovered the were HIV seropositive. A shift to a client-centered approach to counseling that focused on improving the client’s sense of danger and the development of the individual risk reduction plan increased the use of condoms and reduced the incidence of new sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in HIV-positive patients in STD treatment centers (Center for Disease Control and Prevention 2006).

Since the epidemic of HIV/AIDS was first identified there has been a geographic groupings of AIDS cases in cases in United States. Morse, Lessner, Medvesky, Glebatis and Novick (1991) claim that clustering may be related to the pools of HIV affected individuals as well as to risk-taking behaviors that occur typically in states and metropolitan areas that have large populations of people at risk. Recognizing geographic clusters of cases could help focus preventive actions and the allocation of healthcare resources (Morse and. al, 1991).

Epidemiologic studies

Surveys typically provide reliable, deep, detailed information on particular groups. Based on Whitmore, Zaidi, and Dean (2005) epidemiologic studies could be case control, cohort longitudinal, cross-sectional studies. They aren’t considered to be part of routine surveillance for public health but aid health care decision makers in identifying those at risk of HIV infections (Whitmore, Zaidi, & Dean 2005). The distinctive aspect of an epidemiologic study is that the gathering of data directly from the people. The information is able to be compared with other data collected from epidemiological studies such as geographic or demographic indicators to provide a detailed assessment of risk and morbidity within the community. The addition of multiple sources of data using the epidemiological data allows planners in hospitals to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the care offered.

Planning for prevention

Fos Fine and Fine (2005) recommend that an underlying rationale for preventing disability and disease are grounded in the field of clinical epidemiology. Indeed, prevention strategies not backed by epidemiologic clinical evidence can be risky or expensive or both. Epidemiology is crucial to understanding the incidence of any disease as well as its natural causes (Fos Fine and Fos, 2005, 244). 244). The process of preventing and treating HIV/AIDS over an extended period of time is a challenge in the current climate of limited health resources. In the opinion of Whitmore, Zaidi, and Dean (2005) an effective HIV prevention strategies is a science-based approach.

Evaluations of epidemiologic profiles and community services are the primary sources for this evidence. In the past these profiles have focused on the surveillance of HIV/AIDS because of their universal accessibility and superior quality. An ideal intergraded profile provides the effects of the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in terms of sociodemographic geographical, behavioral and clinical characteristics to enable people making decisions based on information (Whitmore, Zaidi, and Dean 2005). The epidemiologic information can assist in the process of making decisions in a community or hospital-based health care facility by providing an overall image of the HIV/AIDS epidemic within the community.

The demographic characteristics of the general population could provide a base for comparing the educational status as well as poverty levels and the coverage for insurance of those with HIV. Data from epidemiology can also reveal people for whom HIV risk behaviors or information on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS is required. Community-based organizations can utilize epidemiologic data to determine the racial/ethnic groups that are most at risk, and concentrate interventions accordingly. The use of data from epidemiology in the health care field can help health care decision makers determine which patients receive HIV primary medical treatment.

Conclusion

HIV prevention and treatment requires collaboration between health departments and the communities that are affected by HIV. The inclusion of several types of data in the decision-making process allows those making the decisions to increase the accuracy and reliability of findings data and analyses that are based on epidemiologic analysis. HIV/AIDS surveillance data as well as geographical, social and behavioral aspects must be considered in the process of making decisions to create a three-dimensional image of the HIV/AIDS’s spread.

Epidemiologic data have improved disease management by providing more details about the sociodemographic characteristics of people suffering from HIV and other comorbidities, like hepatitis, tuberculosis and various STDs. The use of epidemiologic analysesand data should be continuously improved and applied to help lead health care professionals towards more effective treatment and prevention strategies for those suffering from HIV. Fos Fine and Fine (2005) suggest that epidemiological information can assist health care decision-makers determine, assess and choose alternative options. The epidemiology of health can assist the decision makers determine what solution to an outbreak is the most cost-effective use of resources for health care (Fos Fine and Fos 2005). Health care decision makers can make use of epidemiological data to determine the most effective on prevention and treatment services for certain subgroups of people. Information about STD mortality, HIV and tuberculosis-related comorbidity deaths, seroprevalence data, and other studies could give a better view of HIV epidemic.

Presently, there isn’t much to be known about the long-term consequences on any anti-HIV medicines that are available. More alarming is the effects that risk-taking actions can have on HIV transmission. HIV. In the future , hospitals and health centers in the community setting might one day make use of epidemiological information to answer certain questions regarding ways to prevent and treat the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

Reference

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006). HIV/AIDS Retrieved on April 25 in 2006 from
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/c/plan/Implement.htm

Fos, P. J. & Fine, D. J. (2005). Management Epidemiology in health care organisations (2nd edition. ).
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Global Health Council (2006) HIV/AIDS Retrieved on June 9 in 2006 from
http://globalhealth.org/view_top.php3?id=227

Letendre, S. & Ellis, R. (2006) Neurologic complications of HIV disease and treatment.
Topics within HIV Medicine 14(1)21, The International AIDS Society of America

Morse, D. L., Lessner, L., Medvesky, M. G., Glebatis, D. M. & Novick, L. F. (1991). IV.
Geographic distribution of infant HIV seroprevalence in relation four sociodemographic factors. American Journal of Public Health Vol. 8 Retrieved on June 10, 2005, from EBSCO host database

Whitmore, S. K., Zaidi, I. F., & Hazel, D. D. (2005). A comprehensive epidemiologic profile
Utilizing multiple sources of data when developing profiles that inform HIV prevention and planning for care. AIDS education and Prevention, 17, supplement B, 3-16. 3-16 Retrieved on 10 June 06 from EBSCO host database

Wright, K. (2005). The moment is now. Los Angeles, CA. Black AIDS Institute Black AIDS Institute

Bio-Dr. Gilton C. Grange

The Dr. Gilton Grange’s official educational background includes the following: a Doctorate of Philosophy in Health Administration from the University of Phoenix, A Master of Public Administration from Long Island University and A Bachelor of Arts degree from the State University of New York at Buffalo.

The Dr. Grange has 12 years of experience in the health Care sector and is focusing his efforts on Grant writing as well as grant creation for businesses seeking to grow their business. Dr. Grange’s business BridgeBuilder Consortium provides services in proposal writing, management , and costing for companies and organizations that bid on grants and contracts from the government. Grange is a doctor. Grange is currently working on his first book, which focuses on multi-disciplinary teams as an organizational framework.

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